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Alfred A, Knopf, Inc. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders.  New York: Knopf, 1980.

Budge, E. A. Wallis. Mummy: A Handbook of Egyptian Funerary Archeology. Kessinger Publishing, 2003 (original publication 1893).

Gullan, P.J. and P.S. Cranston. The Insects: An Outline of Entomology. 3rd edition. Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2005.

Waldbauer, Gilbert. What Good Are Bugs?: Insects in the Web of Life. New Ed edition. Harvard University Press, 2004.


Aisthorpe, Jill. “Dung beetles – Biology and life cycles.” Queensland Government (Australia). Accessed May 13, 2007.

Cambefort, Yves. “Beetles as Religious Symbols.” Insects on the Web. Dexter Sear. Accessed May 12, 2007.

Davidson, Keay. “Dung beetle a marvel of navigation, if not diet.” Hearst Communications Inc. July 7, 2003. Accessed May 13, 2007.

Koday, Ed. “Scarab Beetles.” Koday's Kids Amazing Insects, Ivy Hall Elementary School (Illinois). Accessed May 12, 2007.

Niogret, Jérôme, Jean-Pierre Lumaret, and Michel Bertrand. “Host selection under predation pressure: case of mites and flies both phoretic on the same dung beetle.” Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (France). Accessed May 12, 2007.

Ramel, Gordon. “In Praise of Dung Beetles.” Earth-Life. Accessed May 12, 2007.

Richardson, Patricia & Dick. “Dung beetles and their effects on soil.” Managing Wholes. Accessed May 13, 2007.

Roach, John. “For Dung Beetles, Monkey Business Is Serious Stuff.” May 26, 2004. National Geographic News. Accessed May 13, 2007.

Roach, John. “Owls Use Dung to ‘Fish’ for Beetles.” September 1, 2004. National Geographic News. Accessed May 13, 2007.

Thomas, Michelle. “Dung Beetle Benefits in the Pasture Ecosystem.” ATTRA - National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service. Accessed May 13, 2007.

Verdú, José R., Alfonso Díaz, and Galante, Eduardo. Abstract of “Thermoregulatory strategies in two closely related sympatric Scarabaeus species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).” Blackwell Synergy. Accessed May 12, 2007.

“Dung beetle.” BBC Science and Nature – Wildfacts (UK). Accessed May 13, 2007

 “Dung beetle.” Wikipedia. Accessed May 12, 2007.

 “Dung Beetles and the Sacred Scarabs of Ancient Egypt.” Kendall Bioresearch Services. Accessed May 12, 2007.

Last Updated December 1, 2008